Jane O'Grady

Did He Influence the Mushrooming Zeitgeist?

Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650–1750


Oxford University Press 810pp £30 order from our bookshop

‘“Dare to know!” – that is the motto of enlightenment’, wrote Kant in 1784, in his famous essay ‘What is Enlightenment?’ Clerical authority, the veracity of the Bible, miracles, magic, satanic possession, monarchy, aristocracy, hierarchy, slavery, women’s subordination to men – all were challenged. Reason, which had immemorially been subordinated to ecclesiastical authority, but which Descartes had called God’s voice speaking in each of us, became, over the period of the Enlightenment, something both more subjective and more objective – the individual’s working out of the truth, without the intervention of Church or State, in a way that would nonetheless secure universal convergence. There was a sense of transcending not only the constraints of superstition but of nationality, perhaps even of class, gender and race, in the avid pursuit of reasoned truth. ‘My dear David, you belong to all nations,’ declared Diderot to David Hume, ‘and … I flatter myself that I am, like you, a citizen of the great city of the world.’

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