For much of the last decade Muslim diaspora communities in Europe have been the subject of intense scrutiny. A spectrum of views has sprung up to explain away their seeming unwillingness, or inability, to embrace normative European values in place of more conservative Islamist ones. It is the conundrum that has plagued journalists, commentators, politicians, and their advisers ever since 9/11. Why have second-generation Muslims who enjoy greater liberties, opportunities and rights than their immigrant parents refused to integrate? Are they disenchanted or disenfranchised?
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