Simon Heffer

Heirs & Graces

Victoria: Queen, Matriarch, Empress

By Jane Ridley

Allen Lane 144pp £10.99 order from our bookshop

William III & Mary II: Partners in Revolution

By Jonathan Keates

Allen Lane 112pp £10.99 order from our bookshop

James II: The Last Catholic King

By David Womersley

Allen Lane 128pp £10.99 order from our bookshop

If Carlyle was right that the history of the world is but the biography of great men, then the history of England (and, after the incorporation of Scotland and Ireland, what we for the moment call the United Kingdom) is for several centuries the biography of its monarchs. These four new volumes in the Penguin Monarchs series illustrate what Jane Ridley, in her vivid portrait of Queen Victoria, terms the progression from power to merely influence. Victoria: Queen, Matriarch, Empress has its political dimension – there is an exceptionally sharp and fair account of her


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