THE EARLY SUMMER days of 1940 were dark for Britain. They were darker still for France and Frenchmen everywhere. On the afternoon of 17 June, General Charles de Gaulle, then a junior minister in Reynaud’s government, flew to London. That evening he made his memorable broadcast – France, with its vast empire, and with Britain’s support, would fight on. Later, Churchill, his French almost incomprehensible, urged Frenchmen to continue the struggle.