Arthur I Miller

Unravelling String Theory

The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next


Allen Lane / The Penguin Press 416pp £25 order from our bookshop

In the early 1970s physicists formulated the ‘standard model’ of particle physics, which unified three of the four known forces of nature – the strong force which holds the nucleus together, the weak force responsible for radioactivity, and the electromagnetic force. But including the fourth, gravitational force proved intractable, because the mathematical formalism for how gravity interacts with the other forces produced numbers which were infinitely huge, an anathema in physics. 

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