During the course of the Second World War the Allies spent a good deal of time trying to work out how bombing might bring a country to collapse. In Italy’s case there is a good argument for suggesting that bombing helped to give the impetus to the overthrow of Mussolini and the Italian surrender in September 1943.
In the German case the Allies drew a blank. From early on in the war the RAF insisted that heavy bombing would unhinge the German war effort and perhaps bring about collapse without invasion. In the autumn of 1943